ʿĪd al-Fiṭr 2020 & Performing the Prayer
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
May 14, 2020 – Ramaḍān 21, 1441
We have now entered Ramaḍān’s last ten days. Very soon, Ramaḍān will be over and one of Islām’s biggest celebrations will be here. For many, there is a question that needs to be resolved. How will we celebrate ʿĪd al-Fiṭr this year and how will we perform the prayer? The shelter-in-place orders will most probably remain in effect when we reach this blessed occasion. This means that most Muslims will be observing the Eid while staying at home.
Eid’s Definition & Its History
In Arabic, the word Eid is derived from عاد يعود which means to return. Customarily, people continue to observe it, year after year, and thus they continue returning to these days and moments of happiness. These are days in which Allāh’s munificent benevolence is showered upon His servants. And joy, elation, and excitement return to us, by His mercy, when Eid returns each year.
ʿĪd al-Fiṭr was established in the first year after the Prophet (upon him be peace) reached Madīnah. The following is related on Anas’s authority (may Allāh be pleased with him):
«قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – الْمَدِينَةَ، وَلَهُمْ يَوْمَانِ يَلْعَبُونَ فِيهِمَا فَقَالَ مَا هَذَانِ الْيَوْمَانِ؟ قَالُوا: كُنَّا نَلْعَبُ فِيهِمَا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: إنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَبْدَلَكُمْ بِهِمَا خَيْرًا مِنْهُمَا يَوْمَ الْأَضْحَى وَيَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ»
“When Allah’s Messenger (upon him be peace) arrived at Madīnah, they (the residents of Madīnah) had two days that they would celebrate. He asked: ‘What are these two days?’ To which they replied: ‘We celebrated them in the Days of Ignorance.’ The Prophet (upon him be peace) said: ‘Verily, Allāh has replaced these two days with something better, ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā and ʿĪd al-Fiṭr.’”
In the Days of Ignorance, the people celebrated these days by playing around and doing things that Allāh was not pleased with. When Islām came, Allāh replaced these days with days in which He would be exalted, glorified, and praised. He replaced them with days in which His oneness would be recognized, and mankind would submit to Him in worship.
During the days of Eid, Muslims express their thankfulness and gratitude to Allāh for all the favors that He has given, especially the favor of completing the acts of worship that came in the days prior to the celebration. ʿĪd al-Fiṭr comes after Ramaḍān, and on this occasion we thank Allāh for the blessing of completing the fast. During ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā, we express our thanks to Him for all the acts of worship that we performed during the ten days of Dhū al-Ḥijjah, the most significant of them being the pilgrimage.
While this Eid will be different in many ways, there is still a definite reality that all must acknowledge. When the Eid day comes, it means we have completed the Ramaḍān fast. This is something to truly be thankful for as Allāh has again blessed us that we submit to Him by observing it. With certitude, we acknowledge His oneness, and as his servants we submit to Him. In this way, this year is no different than the years that came before and those that will come after. Celebrating Eid is something we do for Allāh’s sake, and this year our observance of it will again be for Him.
The Eid Prayer’s Ruling
In the Ḥanafī Madhhab, the Eid prayer is obligatory (ar. wājib) for those who are obligated to perform the Friday prayer. Thus, it is obligatory for men but not for women. The sermons (ar. khuṭbah) made after it are recommended (ar. sunnah). The number of participants required is the same number required for the Friday prayer. There needs to be at least three men and the imām. If this minimum is not fulfilled, then one may perform supererogatory prayers individually in its time and it is hoped from Allāh’s mercy that one will receive the reward of having performed the Eid prayer.
Generally, the Eid prayers are performed in large congregations. However, that is not possible this year considering the government’s order banning large gatherings. It is permissible to gather one’s family members and perform the Eid prayer at home or a similar location.
Some Things that Should Be Observed on the Day of ʿĪd al-Fiṭr
– Prior to the prayer, it is recommended that one take a bath.
– As well, it is recommended that one brush his teeth by using siwāk. This is recommended prior to performing prayers and prior to gathering with others. Thus, it is recommended that one observe it prior to making the Eid prayer.
– One should wear his best clothing.
– One should apply fragrance.
– One should eat something sweet. It is recommended that one avoids eating prior to performing ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā, and that one eats something prior to performing ʿĪd al-Fiṭr. One reason that has been mentioned for this is that on ʿĪd al-Fiṭr one breaks his fast, and it is recommended that one hasten in doing so. The following is related on Anas’s authority (may Allāh be pleased with him):
«كَانَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – لَا يَغْدُو يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ حَتَّى يَأْكُلَ تَمَرَاتٍ وَيَأْكُلُهُنَّ وِتْرًا»
“The Prophet (upon him be peace) would not depart on the Day of Fiṭr until he had eaten some dates. He would eat an odd number of them.”
Thus, eating dates may be preferred. If one does not have dates, then something else which is sweet may be eaten instead.
– Before going to perform the prayer, one should pay the zakāt al-fiṭr. This year’s minimum amount is seven dollars. To pay it, please visit: https://us.mohid.co/il/nwcs/dsf/masjid/online/donation/index/9 or Quickpay/Zelle to firstname.lastname@example.org to avoid the processing fees.
The Eid Prayer’s Time
The Eid prayer’s time starts once the sun has risen a spear’s length in the morning sky. And it ends when the sun passes its zenith. It should be noted that there is no adhān or iqāmah made for the Eid prayer.
How the Eid Prayer is Performed
Firstly, one must intend it. Then, they enter the prayer by reciting takbīr. The supplication of thanāʾ is recited followed by three additional takbīrs. One raises his hands for each. Then, one recites istiʿādhah, the basmalah, Sūrat al-Fāṭihah, and another sūrah. It is recommended that Sūrat al-Aʿlā be recited. Then, one goes into rukūʿ and continues in the prayer until completing the first rakʿah.
Then, one stands for the second rakʿah. He recites the basmalah, Sūrat al-Fāṭihah, and another sūrah. It is recommended that he recites Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah. Then, he recites three additional takbīrs. One raises his hands for each, just like he did in the first. After that, he recites takbīr and goes into rukūʿ. Then, he continues in the prayer until completing the second rakʿah.
Once the prayer is completed, the two khuṭbahs should be delivered.
As was mentioned above, the two Eid sermons are a sunnah. They are not required for the Eid prayer to be valid, but they should not be left out. It should be noted that the same conditions that apply to one giving the Friday prayer’s sermons apply to Eid.
The minimum required for a valid khuṭbah is Allāh’s remembrance. According to Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, if one would only say “subḥānAllāh” or “al-ḥamdu liLlāh” that would suffice for a sermon. If one is able to do more, that is better, i.e. praising Allāh, sending salutations on the Messenger, and a supplication (ar. duʿāʾ) for the Muslims. Nonetheless, what was mentioned is the minimum amount that is required.
This is an Arabic khuṭbah that one may use:
The First Khuṭbah
اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ، وَنَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهُ، وَنَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ. اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ
قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: وَلِتُكْمِلُوا العِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّروا اللهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُوْنَ
وَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ سِتًّا مِنْ شَوَّالٍ، كَانَ كَصِيَامِ الدَّهْرِ
أَقُوْلُ قَوْلِيْ هَذَا وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ.
The Second Khuṭbah
اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ، وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ، وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ
قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ
وَقَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيْمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ. اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلَى آلِ سَيِّدِنَا إِبْرَاهِيْمَ، فِي الْعَالَمِيْنَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً، وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً، وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ. اللَّهُمَّ ارْفَعْ عَنَّا الْوَبَاءَ وَجَمِيْعَ الْفِتَنِ، مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُوْنَ، وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِيْنَ، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ
All praise is due to Allāh the Most-Merciful. May He send the choicest of prayers and salutations on His beloved Prophet Muḥammad, his folk, and his companions.
 Tahdhīb al-Lughah, 3:84
 Ibid., 3:84-85.
 al-Baḥr al-Rāʾiq, 2:170.
 Musnad Aḥmad, 19:65; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 1:295.
 Sharḥ al-ʿAynī ʿalā Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 4:477.
 Radd al-Muḥtār, 2:166.
 For a detailed study on making the Eid prayer at home, please see Muhammad Ilyas bin Afzal Sheikh’s “Performing Jumuʿah and ʿĪd During the Coronavirus Outbreak,” South Africa: Dār al-Ulūm Zakariyyā, May 12, 2020.
 al-Baḥr al-Rāʾiq, 2:172; Radd al-Muḥtār, 2:166.
 al-Ikhtiyār li Taʿlīl al-Mukhtār, 86; Maḥāsin al-Sharīʿah, 134.
 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 2:17.
 al-Baḥr al-Rāʾiq, 2:172; Radd al-Muḥtār, 2:166.
 al-Baḥr al-Rāʾiq, 2:170; al-Ikhtiyār li Taʿlīl al-Mukhtār, 85; Radd al-Muḥtār, 2:171.
 Nūr al-Īdāḥ, 801.
 Tabīyn al-Ḥaqāʾiq, 1:220.
 Muslim Judicial Council. “Eid Ṣalāh During the Lockdown.” May 13, 2020.